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TV and on-demand audiovisual services in Turkey

Description of the audiovisual market

The Turkish audiovisual market is one of the largest in Europe with almost 18 million television households. The Doğan Group had the largest daily audience market share in 2011 with its channels Kanal D (14.3%) and Star TV (7.3%), ahead of ATV (Çalık Group, 10.5%), Show TV (Çukurova Group, 9.6%) und Fox Türk (News Corp group, 8.5%). (Audience data source: Eurodata TV Worldwide / AGB Nielsen Media Research Turkey / TIAK)

The most important reception platforms are terrestrial and satellite, with almost 50% of homes using satellite TV services (of these 15% were pay services) at the end of 2009. Three services dominate  the multi-channel market: the satellite platforms Digitürk (Çukurova group) and D-Smart (Doğan Group) and the cable TV service Türksat (national operator). Digitürk claimed to have 2.5 million subscribers in 2011. D-Smart had 1.8 million in July 2012. Data from the RTÜK (Turkish Radio and Television Supreme Council) in June 2010 claimed that there were a total of 1 174 000 analogue cable subscribers and 120 000 digital cable households. Mobile TV services, operated by Avea, Türkcell,Türk Telekom or Vodoafone Turkey, are competing with one another in Turkey. Regarding IPTV, in September 2010 a first service called IPTivibu was launched by TTNET (a subsidiary of Türk Telekom), having received a licence from the regulator in June 2010.

The RTÜK has decided that the transition period for the digital terrestrial switchover will commence in 2013, with analog and digital broadcasts continuing simultaneously. The analog switch off is set for March 2015 with DVB-T2 being the standard for digital terrestrial broadcasts.

The Doğan audiovisual group (which operates Kanal D, Star TV, CNN Türk and the D-Smart satellite platform), was forced to close down eleven channels on the D-Smart platform in October 2008 because they did not possess any licences. This issue was resolved at the end of 2009 and the beginning of 2010 when the regulator gave them time to properly organise their licences. In addition, the group was accused of tax evasion and ordered to pay heavy fines in 2009. The amounts involved were higher than the total value of the group, which is reputedly hostile to the present government. This led to international disquiet with regard to media plurality and freedom of expression in the country. The company challenged the fines in court in August 2010 but lost their case. As a result the Doğan group had to pay the approximate amount of EUR 476 million. In October 2012 the company announced that it had paid off all its restructured tax debts to the Finance Ministry.

The Turkish Law on the Establishment of Radio and Television Enterprises and their Broadcasts has been repealed by a new law that was adopted by the Turkish Parliament on 15 February 2011 and entered into force on 3 March 2011.

The new law was prepared with the intention of solving current problems the Turkish media sector has been facing. It contains completely new provisions alongside articles that repeat related provisions of the repealed law. The most important changes may be summarised under the following four titles:

1. The Turkish Media Sector has been regulated in accordance with EU standards. For example, the Audiovisual Media Services Directive 2010/13/EU has been taken into consideration in terms of the responsibilities of cross-border media service providers. The scope of Art. 3, titled “Definitions”, is enlarged to include the new concepts mentioned in the Directive. Namely, new items such as European works, media service provider, editorial responsibility and commercial communication have been added.

2. The articles relating to advertising have been revised and broadened. The time allowed for commercial breaks is limited to 20%per hour while the media service provider decides on the frequency of the breaks. Product placement is permitted in cinema and TV films, TV series, sports and entertainment programmes, provided that it does not infringe the editorial independence and responsibilities of the respective media service providers.

3. The period and date of the transition to digital terrestrial broadcasting have been clarified. The procedures relating to the frequency planning are regulated in detail in Art. 26. A provisional article declares that the transition to digital terrestrial broadcasting has to be completed in 2015. The term of the broadcasting license is extended from five years to ten.

4. The partnership structure of radio and television enterprises has been revised. One of the most important changes concerns the structure of media companies. However, with the new law, the ratio for the share of foreign capital has been raised to 50%.

This description was last updated in December 2012. The other data in MAVISE is updated on a continuous basis.



Licensing authorities / Registers
Population and household equipment
TV channels available in the country
International/National/Regional channels
Local channels
TV channels established in the country
International/National/Regional channels
Local channels
On-demand audiovisual services available in the country
International/National on-demand audiovisual services

This country has no local on-demand audiovisual service available in the country.

On-demand audiovisual services established in the country
International/National on-demand audiovisual services

This country has no local on-demand audiovisual service established in the country.

Operators (all types of companies)
Providers of on-demand audiovisual services

This country has no provider of on-demand audiovisual services.

Distributors, transmitters and/or packagers
Other activities

This country has no host and/or store of applications.